RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman)


Rivest, Shamir & Adleman (RSA) is the public key cryptosystem.  The phenomenon of data transmission is secured through it. The letters “RSA” are the initials of the inventor of the system. Four steps are incorporated in this algorithm: Encryption, Decryption, Key Distribution and Key Generation.  After the development of public-key cryptography, the most famous cryptosystem in the world is RSA. In order to maintain proper security, the decryption exponent of RSA must be greater than certain level. The public key infrastructure (PKI) is integrated with RSA. Only one modular exponentiation is used in both encryption and decryption. This is also one of the many reasons that RSA gained popularity. RSA Modulus is represented by the integer “N”.


The two keys public and private are categorized as RSA key pair. In the certificate enrollment request, public key must be incorporated while establishing your public key infrastructure. The data sent to the router can be encrypted by the peers.  While the public key will be incorporated in the certificate, after issuance of the certificate. When communicating with peers it digitally signs transactions and the data is decrypted sent by peers, these both are used when the private key is retained on the router. A key modulus value is also incorporated in RSA key pairs. Size of the RSA key is determined by the modulus. RSA key depend upon the modulus.  The larger the modulus, the higher the security. It take more time to establish, keys with large modulus value and with larger keys, operations of encryption and decryption take more time.


There are mainly three variants RSA-Small-e, RSA-Small-d and Rebalanced-RSA. There is one more variant called Twin-RSA. When two instances of RSA are needed it allows for decreased storage. Three algorithms are incorporated in the original RSA cryptosystem that are encryption, decryption and key generation. Encryption exponent is represented by the integer “e” and Decryption exponent is represented by the integer “d”. In encryption and decryption operations the modular exponentiations are found, that are the main computational costs. Small exponent is used to decrease these operations for a stable modulus size. In RSA-Small-e, when public exponent is used this small is advisable as it decreases encryption to only a few modular multiplications. In RSA-Small-d, with respect to public and private exponent, establishing instances of RSA with a small private exponent is easy with the observation that the key relations are symmetric. Sometime it is advisable to decrease decryption costs. This variant attains this by shifting the cost of decryption to encryption.


To reduce the storage requirement Dual RSA can be utilized, when there is requirement of two RSA key pairs. There are two main applications, Blind signatures and Authentication. In Blind signatures, one user is allowed to have a message signed by another user without disclosing any information about the message to the signer. The applications for blind signatures are e-cash, electronic election system and time-stamping etc. These applications of blind signatures are based on RSA.

In Authentication, this is also known as secrecy. When RSA signature face reblocking problem there are solutions which can be considered. When RSA is used to first sign and then encrypt the message to ensure both authenticity and secrecy, the reblocking problem appears.

Security Analysis

The mathematical tool is required for the new attacks. Two main mathematical tools are incorporated in the attacks against Dual RSA that are continued fractions and lattices. We use adjunct of Coppersmith’s procedure for discovering small solutions of polynomials and also utilize a mutual heuristic regarding small vectors in lattices, from lattice theory. For each scheme, restrictions are given on the parameter selection. When they are satisfied, against all known attacks the system is secured.


It is concluded that, while establishing RSA key pairs, usage keys and general-purpose keys are integrated. In usage RSA keys, two key pairs are used for encryption and signatures. In General-purpose key, one single pair is used for both encryption and signature. This article elaborated the way to establish RSA keys within a public key infrastructure. RSA key pair comprising of public key and private key in needed before you can acquire a certificate for your router. To acquire a certificate and enroll in a public key infrastructure, the end host should establish a pair of RSA keys and exchange the public key with certification authority. SecurID, Besafe, enVision, hardware tokens and software tokens are the products of RSA. Most of the secure communications of internet are run through PKI encryption standards made by RSA. RSA encryption depends on the utilization of public key and private key. RSA products are mostly utilized by employees working at security sensitive companies.


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